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study information

date of publication1-feb-2000
journalJ Virol 2000 Feb;74(4):1712-7
titleDiminished human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription and nuclear transport in primary macrophages arrested in early G(1) phase of the cell cycle.
title in Dutch
resp. centreCLB
designPreviously, we and others have demonstrated that the process of reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is disturbed in nondividing macrophages and quiescent T lymphocytes. Here we analyzed which phase of the cell cycle in macrophages is crucial for early steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle. HIV-1 Ba-L-inoculated macrophages arrested early in the G(1) phase by n-butyrate contained incomplete products of reverse transcription. In gamma-irradiated macrophages, reverse transcription was successfully completed but proviral integration could not be detected. In these cells, nuclear import was disturbed as reflected by the absence of two-long-terminal-repeat circles. In macrophages arrested late in G(1) phase by aphidicolin or 5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), reverse transcription was unaffected. Proviral integration occurred efficiently in DRB-treated macrophages, whereas integrated proviral DNA could not be detected after aphidicolin treatment. Arrest at G(2) phase of the cell cycle by nocodazole did not affect reverse transcription or proviral integration. Treatment of macrophages with hydroxyurea (HU), which reduces the intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pool by blocking the de novo synthesis of dNTP, resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription. This could partially be restored by the addition of nucleoside precursors. Addition of nucleoside precursors enhanced both reverse transcription and cell proliferation. However, the disturbed reverse transcription observed in the nonproliferating and n-butyrate-treated macrophages could not be restored by addition of nucleoside precursors. Similar to observations in quiescent T lymphocytes, incomplete proviral DNA species were arrested in the cytoplasm of the macrophages. Our results indicate that also in primary macrophages the intracellular nucleotide pools and other cellular factors that coincide with late G(1) phase of the cell cycle may contribute to efficient reverse transcription and nuclear localization.

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